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Edward 1st penny £85

Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 until his death in 1307. Born on June 17, 1239, he was the eldest son of King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. His reign is noted for several significant accomplishments and events:

1. **Military Campaigns**: Edward I is well-known for his military campaigns, particularly in Wales and Scotland. He led the conquest of Wales, resulting in the construction of many castles and the incorporation of Wales into the English kingdom. His attempts to subjugate Scotland were less successful and led to prolonged conflicts.

2. **Legal Reforms**: Edward enacted numerous legal reforms and statutes that helped standardize and strengthen the administration of law in England. His legal work laid foundations that would influence English common law for centuries.

3. **Parliament**: Edward was instrumental in developing the English Parliament, establishing the principle that common consent was necessary for taxation. This was a crucial step in the evolution of the parliamentary system.

4. **Administration**: He reformed the administrative system of England, including financial management and local governance, which enhanced the efficiency and effectiveness of the royal administration.

5. **Conflict with the Barons**: Edward's reign was marked by conflicts with powerful barons, a continuation of the issues that had plagued his father's reign. However, Edward managed these tensions more effectively, maintaining relative stability.

Edward I's legacy is mixed; he was a formidable ruler whose reign brought about significant developments in governance and law, but his aggressive military campaigns, particularly in Scotland and Wales, earned him a reputation for ruthlessness. He died on July 7, 1307, and was succeeded by his son, Edward II.

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