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Henry 111 penny £85

Henry III, born on October 1, 1207, in Winchester, England, was the son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême. He ascended to the throne of England in 1216, at the tender age of nine, following his father's death. His reign, lasting until his own death in 1272, spanned 56 years, making him one of England's longest-reigning monarchs.

Henry's early years as king were dominated by the regency of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, and later Hubert de Burgh, who stabilized the kingdom after the turmoil of King John's rule and the First Barons' War. Henry's own rule was marked by efforts to consolidate royal authority and restore the crown's finances, though his reign was fraught with challenges, including repeated conflicts with the barons.

One of the most significant episodes of Henry's reign was the Provisions of Oxford in 1258, a series of reforms imposed by the barons led by Simon de Montfort. These reforms aimed to limit the power of the king and establish a more representative form of governance. This period of baronial reform and rebellion culminated in the Second Barons' War (1264-1267), during which Henry was captured at the Battle of Lewes in 1264. The war ended with the Battle of Evesham in 1265, where de Montfort was killed, and Henry was restored to power, albeit with concessions to the barons.

Henry III was also notable for his patronage of the arts and architecture. He was a devout Christian, and his piety was reflected in his significant contributions to the Church. His most enduring legacy in this regard is the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey in the Gothic style, which began in 1245. The abbey remains a symbol of his reign and a masterpiece of medieval architecture.

Henry married Eleanor of Provence in 1236, and they had several children, including his successor, Edward I. Despite his long reign, Henry III's rule was often characterized by his reliance on foreign advisors and his perceived weakness in dealing with the barons, which ultimately led to ongoing struggles for power.

In summary, King Henry III's reign was marked by a quest for stability and authority in a period of significant political turmoil. His contributions to architecture and the arts, along with the constitutional developments during his reign, had lasting impacts on England's history.

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