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Richard 11 half penny £85

Richard II, who was King of England from 1377 to 1399, Here is an overview of his life and reign:

Richard II (1367–1400)

Early Life

*Born:January 6, 1367, at Bordeaux, Aquitaine.

- **Parents:** Edward, the Black Prince, and Joan of Kent.

- **Grandson:** of King Edward II

Accession to the Throne

- **Became King:** June 21, 1377, at the age of ten, following the death of his grandfather, Edward III.

- **Regency:** Due to his young age, the kingdom was initially governed by a regency council led by his uncles, notably John of Gaunt.

Key Events During His Reign

1. **Peasants' Revolt (1381):**

- Richard II faced the Peasants' Revolt, a major uprising caused by socioeconomic tensions and oppressive taxation.

- At just 14 years old, he personally met with the rebels and promised reforms, though many of these promises were later unfulfilled.

2. **Political Struggles:**

- His reign was marked by constant power struggles with the nobility, particularly with a group known as the Lords Appellant, who sought to limit the king's power.

- In 1387-1388, the Lords Appellant led a rebellion against Richard’s favorites, resulting in the Merciless Parliament which saw many of his close allies executed.

3. **Autocratic Rule:**

- By 1397, Richard had consolidated power and began ruling more autocratically. He sought revenge on those who had opposed him, leading to the execution and exile of several nobles.

4. **Deposition:**

- Richard's harsh methods and his confiscation of lands from nobles to reward his favorites led to widespread discontent.

- In 1399, while Richard was campaigning in Ireland, Henry Bolingbroke (the future Henry IV) returned from exile, raised an army, and deposed Richard.

- Richard was forced to abdicate and was imprisoned, eventually dying under mysterious circumstances in 1400, likely murdered.


- **Shakespeare's Play:**

- Richard II’s life and reign were dramatized by William Shakespeare in the play "Richard II," highlighting themes of kingship, power, and downfall.

- **Historical Impact:**

- His deposition marked the end of the Plantagenet dynasty’s unchallenged rule and set the stage for the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars over the English throne.

Richard II’s reign is often seen as a cautionary tale about the dangers of autocratic rule and the importance of maintaining the support of the nobility and other key stakeholders in medieval governance.

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